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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Viral meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis, is a type of meningitis due to a viral infection. It results in inflammation of the meninges (the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord). Symptoms commonly include headache, fever, sensitivity to light and neck stiffness Meningitis is an infection of certain membranes and tissues of the nervous system. Those are called meninges (singular: meninx). Their function is to protect the central nervous system Meningitis is a disease caused by inflammation and irritation of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In meningococcal meningitis this is caused by the bacteria invading the cerebrospinal fluid and circulating through the central nervous system La meningitis es una infección caracterizada por la inflamación de las meninges [1] (leptomeninges) que en el 80 % de los casos es causada por virus, en el 15 al 20 % lo es por bacterias y en el resto de los casos se debe a intoxicaciones, hongos, medicamentos y otras enfermedades Meningitis Trust was a charity formed in the United Kingdom in 1986 to fight meningitis. [1] Meningitis UK was originally called the Spencer Dayman Meningitis Laboratories in memory of founder and chief executive Steve Dayman's son, who died of meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in 1982, aged 14-months

Viral meningitis - Wikipedi

الأوبئة تحدث عادة في موسم الجفاف (ديسمبر-يونيو)، وموجة الوباء يمكن أن تستمر 2-3 سنوات، وتخمد بتدخل مواسم الأمطار. , leading to it being labeled the meningitis belt. Epidemics typically occur in the dry season (December to June), and an epidemic wave can last two to three years, dying out during the intervening rainy seasons Eine Meningitis ( Plural Meningitiden; deutsch Hirnhautentzündung, Entzündung der Meningen ), auch Meningitis cerebrospinalis, ist eine Entzündung der Hirn- und Rückenmarkshäute, also der Hüllen des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS). Sie kann durch Viren, Bakterien oder andere Mikroorganismen verursacht werden, aber auch aufgrund nichtinfektiöser Reize. A pneumococcal infection is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also called the pneumococcus. S. pneumoniae is a common member of the bacterial flora colonizing the nose and throat of 5-10% of healthy adults and 20-40% of healthy children. However, it is also a cause of significant disease, being a leading cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. The World Health Organization estimates that in 2005 pneumococcal infections were responsible.

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Meningitis - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation Meningitis er en inflammation af hjerne- og rygmarvshinderne, meninges, ikke at forveksle med betændelse i selve hjernen som kaldes encephalitis (hjernebetændelse) Media in category Meningitis The following 35 files are in this category, out of 35 total. A treatise on the diseases of the nervous system (1881) (14591029350).jpg. Beagle Pain Syndrome.jpg. Cartoon structure of MenB.png. Child suffering from posterior basal meningitis Wellcome L0062521.jpg Meningitida čili zánět mozkových blan je zánět ochranných membrán pokrývajících mozek a míchu, známých pod souhrnným názvem mozkomíšní pleny. Zánět je vyvoláván viry, bakteriemi či jinými mikroorganismy, méně často pak vlivem některých léků

Meningococcal disease - Wikipedi

Meningitis je upala zaštitnih membrana mozga i kičmene moždine, koje se stručno nazivaju meninge (moždane ovojnice).Upalu mogu da izazovu virusi, bakterije, kao i drugi mikroorganizmi, ali može da bude i posljedica uzimanja lijekova ili drugih oboljenja.Meningitis može da bude fatalan i zato se smatra urgentnim stanjem u medicini. Najčešći simptomi meningitisa su: glavobolja i. Meningitis inggih punika lelara amargi wonten infèksi ing meninges ingkang nutupi utek lan sungsum balung belakang. Meninges inggih punika tiga lapisan jaringan ikat ingkang kawangun saking pia mèter (paling celak tumuju organ-organ sistem saraf), arachnoid, lan dura mèter (paling tebih saking utek lan sungsum balung belakang). Meningitis saged dipunjalari déning manéka jinis organisme. Zapalenie opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych (łac. meningitis cerebrospinalis purulenta) - choroba wywoływana przez wirusy lub bakterie, rzadziej przez pierwotniaki, pasożyty i niektóre leki, obejmująca opony mózgowo-rdzeniow

Meningitis - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libr

This is an audio version of a Wikipedia article created for the benefit of those who have vision problems or problem reading at night. This Wikipedia article.. Meningitis bakteriarra gaitz oso larria da, ordu gutxitan gaixoa hil dezakeena. Ulertzekoa da diagnostiko goiztiar baten beharra. Sendabidea. Mikrobio eragilearen araberakoa da. Gaitzak jatorri bakteriarra duenean, penizilina, zefalosporinak eta errifanpizina dira erabilitako antibiotikoak În cazul adulților, cel mai frecvent simptom de meningită este durerea de cap severă, care se produce în aproape 90% din cazurile de meningită bacteriană, urmat de rigiditatea cervicală (incapacitatea de a înclina capul înainte din cauza înțepenirii mușchilor cefei și a tensiunii musculare sporite). În general, prezența concomitentă a următoarelor trei semne este specifică. Az agyhártyagyulladás (meningitis), régies szóval agyláz, az agyhártyáknak vagy agyburkoknak, azaz a központi idegrendszert körülvevő hártyák gyulladásos megbetegedése, ami súlyos, életveszélyes állapot, és sürgősségi orvosi beavatkozást igényel Viene definita meningite una malattia del sistema nervoso centrale, generalmente di origine infettiva, caratterizzata dall'infiammazione delle meningi (le membrane protettive che ricoprono l'encefalo e il midollo spinale); è la più frequente sindrome infettiva del sistema nervoso centrale.Qualora l'infiammazione coinvolga anche il parenchima cerebrale, si definisce meningoencefalite

Meningitis Now - Wikipedi

Meningitis. Meningitis est gravis morbus accurate inflammatio meningium cerebri et medullae spinalis. Meningitis, cuius causa bacteria aut viri aut fungi esse potest, hominem aegrum morti saepe obicit Jenis. Meningitis terdiri daripada beberapa buah jenis. Meningitis meningokokus ialah radang pada selaput sekeliling otak dan saraf tunjang dan boleh membawa kepada meningokokal septisemia (keracunan darah oleh bakteria meningokokus). Penyakit meningokokal disebabkan oleh bakteria meningococcus Neisseria meningitides, dan penyakit ini berjangkit secara langsung menerusi titisan rembesan. التهاب السحايا الفيروسي (بالإنجليزية: Viral meningitis)‏ هو التهاب للأغشية الدماغية المغلفة للدماغ والنخاع الشوكي، المعروفة باسم السحايا تسببها عدوى فيروسية.. ويسمى أيضا التهاب السحايا العقيم كما أنها تندرج تحت التهاب. meningitis ( countable and uncountable, plural meningitides ) ( pathology) Inflammation of the meninges, characterized by headache, neck stiffness and photophobia and also fever, chills, vomiting and myalgia

قد يكون سبب الالتهاب عدوى فيروسات ، بكتيريا ، أو غيره من الكائنات الدقيقة ، وأقل شيوعًا بواسطة عادات معينة . يمكن أن يكون التهاب السحايا مهددًا للحياة بسبب قرب الالتهاب من الدماغ والحبل الشوكي ؛ الحالة ، حالة الحالة. Meningitis ist eine akute in Entzündung der Schutzmembranen, die das Gehirn und Rückenmark bedecken und zusammen als Meningen wird werden. Die tatsächlichen Beschwerden sind Fieber , Beschwerden und Nackensteifheit . Andere Gefühle sind Verwirrung oder Handlungenes Bewusstsein , Erbrechen und die Wahrnehmung, leichte oder laute Weise zu tolerieren

التهاب السحايا العقيم (بالإنجليزية: Aseptic meningitis أو sterile meningitis)‏ هو حالة تصاب فيها طبقات الدماغ المسماة بالسحايا بالتهاب ولا يعود السبب لبكتيريا قيحية Meningitis. Aller à la navigation Aller à la recherche. Royuwaay:Infobox medical condition (new)Meningite ay metit yu tar la yuy jàpp cër yiy aar yuuru nit ki, ak doqam, te ñu koy gëna woowe meninge. Ni muy gëna feeñee ci nit mooy yaram wu tàng, mettitu bopp ak ndong lu bañ. Yenn say mu.

التهاب السحايا - ويكيبيدي

  1. Meningitis chirwere chakaipisisa chine chekuita nekuzvimba kwenhengo dzinochengetedza dzakaputira uropi uye muzongoza, izvo zvinozivikanwa nezita rechirungu kuti meninges. Zviratidzo zvinonyanyozivikanwa zvinoti fivha, kutemwa nemusoro uye kurwadziwa mutsipa. Zvimwe zviratidzo zvinosanganisira kukangaidzika kana kuti kudzungaira, kurutsa, uye kusagona kushivirira chiedza kana ruzha rwakanyanya
  2. Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges.Meningitis may develop in response to a number of causes, including infectious agents, physical injury, cancer, or certain drugs.While some forms of meningitis are mild and resolve on their own, meningitis is a potentially serious condition owing to the proximity.
  3. Meningitis: 중앙 신경계의 수막염: 경뇌막(dura mater), 거미줄막(arachnoid), 연뇌막(pia mater). Wikipedia®는 미국 및 다른 국가에 등록되어 있는 Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 소유의 등록 상표입니다
  4. Meningitis is an infection of certain membranes and tissues of the nervous system.Those are called meninges (singular: meninx). Their function is to protect the central nervous system. Most often, this infection is caused by microorganisms, like viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites.The most common cause of meningitis are viruses, followed by bacteria
  5. Meningitida čili zánět mozkových blan je zánět ochranných membrán pokrývajících mozek a míchu, známých pod souhrnným názvem mozkomíšní pleny. Zánět je vyvoláván viry, bakteriemi či jinými mikroorganismy, méně často pak vlivem některých léků. Meningitida (zvláště bakteriální) může ohrozit život člověka, k zánětu dochází v oblasti mozku a míchy.
  6. Summary. Meningitis is a serious infection of the meninges in the brain or spinal cord that is most commonly viral or bacterial in origin, although fungal, parasitic, and noninfectious causes are also possible. Enteroviruses and herpes simplex virus are the leading causes of viral meningitis, while Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the pathogens most commonly responsible.

Pneumococcal infection - Wikipedi

Meningitis bacteriol. Achosir meningitis bacteriol gan germau sy'n byw'n naturiol yng nghefn y trwyn a'r gwddf a gallant gael eu lledaenu drwy gyswllt maith agos, peswch, tisian, a chusanu. Mae'r heintiau sy'n achosi meningitis yn cynnwys Hib, twbercwlosis, E. coli, bacteria streptococol Grŵp B, a'r achos mwyaf cyffredin o feningitis bacteriol. Meningitis is an inflammation of the fluid and membranes (meninges) surrounding your brain and spinal cord. The swelling from meningitis typically triggers signs and symptoms such as headache, fever and a stiff neck. Most cases of meningitis in the United States are caused by a viral infection, but bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections are. Meningokokken (Neisseria meningitidis, früher Meningococcus meningitis) sind gramnegative intrazelluläre Bakterien, die als Diplokokken auftreten. Sie besiedeln beim Menschen den Nasenrachenraum und können schwere Krankheiten auslösen. Etwa zehn Prozent der europäischen Bevölkerung tragen diese Bakterien im Nasenrachenraum, ohne dabei Krankheitsanzeichen zu entwickeln

Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (also called pneumococcus, or S pneumoniae).This type of bacteria is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. It is the second most common cause of meningitis in children older than age 2 The diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is discussed in greater detail . ›. Viral meningitis in children: Management, prognosis, and prevention. View in Chinese. noninfectious causes of aseptic meningitis should be considered, including autoimmune encephalitis, neoplasms, and drug-induced meningitis. Most children with viral meningitis. Meningitis is an infection of the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain itself. Anyone can get encephalitis or meningitis. Causes of encephalitis and meningitis include viruses, bacteria, fungus, and parasites

Meningitis baktéri jeung virus bisa tatalépa tapi prosésna teu sagancang flu. Duanana bisa tatalépa sékrési anu ngeclak waktu kontak jeung nu kakeunaan saperti nyabak, nyium, batuk, tapi henteu bisa tatalépa ku nyingreup hawa deukeut jalma anu méningitis English: Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates from Meningitis by country (per 100,000 inhabitants). France includes the overseas departments as well as overseas collectivities. The United Kingdom includes the Crown dependencies as well as the overseas territories ↑Source APLS page 182, 5th ed. ↑ Brouwer MC et al. Dilemmas in the diagnosis of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Lancet. 2012 Nov 10. 380(9854):1684-92. ↑ Chavanet P, Schaller C, Levy C, et al. Performance of a predictive rule to distinguish bacterial and viral meningitis. J Infect 2007;54: 328-36. ↑ Nigrovic LE, Kuppermann N, Macias CG, et al. Clinical prediction rule. Meningitis happens when the brain's lining becomes inflamed.This lining is called the meninges. Aseptic meningitis occurs when there are signs of meningitis. However, when a sample of brain fluid is taken, bacteria do not grow. This condition is often treatable. In many cases, recovery takes 7-10 days

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meningitis wikipedia sri, meningitis wikipedia deutsch; Ads related to: Meningitis wikipedia. Learn The Signs & Symptoms Now - Find Meningitis B Information. Eine Meningitis , auch Meningitis cerebrospinalis, ist eine Entzündung der Hirn- und Rückenmarkshäute, also der Hüllen des zentralen Nervensystems . Sie kann durch Viren, Bakterien oder andere Mikroorganismen verursacht werden, aber auch aufgrund nichtinfektiöser Reize auftreten.[1] Da eine bakterielle Meningitis aufgrund der unmittelbaren Nähe der Entzündung zu Gehirn und Rückenmark. Viral meningitis is an infection of the brain that is caused by a virus.It is usually caused by enteroviruses. Viral meningitis is not so dangerous as meningitis that is caused by bacteria and the symptoms are often mild or similar to flu. This disease occurs mainly in the summer Meningitis (from Greek membrane and the medical suffix -itis, inflammation) is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and.

Meningitis - Wikipedij

  1. Although meningitis is a notifiable disease in many countries, the exact incidence rate is unknown. [10] As of 2010 it is estimated that it resulted in 420,000 deaths. [58] Bacterial meningitis occurs in about 3 people per 100,000 annually in Western countries. Population-wide studies have shown that viral meningitis is more common, at 10.9 per.
  2. Virusni Meningitis je oblik meningitisa, tj. upale mekih moždanih ovojnica (meninga, membrana koje pokrivaju mozak i leđnu moždinu) uzrokovana virusom. Ponekad se netočno naziva i aseptički meningitis kako bi ga se razlikovalo od oblika meningitisa izazvanih bakterijskim uzročnicima.Najpoznatiji primjeri virusnih meningitisa su linfocitarni koriomeningitis i sekundarni meningitis.
  3. Akutni bakterijski meningitis je hudo in hitro potekajoča bakterijska okužba ovojnic centralnega živčevja (mening). Kaže se z glavobolom, povišano telesno temperaturo in otrdelim vratom.Brez hitrega zdravljenja hitro nastopi koma in smrt. Možni zapleti so vnetje žil (), možganska kap, hidrocefalus, možganski absces in možganski edem
  4. ante, o meningococemia, es una enfermedad grave de evolución rápida generada por varios tipos de meningococo (Neisseria meningitidis), habitante frecuente de la nariz y la garganta de los individuos sanos. Caracterizada por septicemia, coagulación intravascular y shock, la meningococemia ocurre cuando el meningococo invade el torrente sanguíne
  5. ada meningococo, es una bacteria gramnegativa que puede causar meningitis y otras formas de enfermedad meningocócica, por ejemplo meningococemia, un tipo de sepsis potencialmente mortal. Esta bacteria se conoce como coco porque es redonda y más específicamente como diplococo porque tiende a formar pares
  6. Media in category Bacterial meningitis The following 15 files are in this category, out of 15 total. Bacterial Meningitis.jpg 800 × 438; 59 KB. Diseases of infancy and childhood (1914) (14769726444).
Neisseria meningitidis

Méningite — Wikipédi

En octubre de 1978, una joven que nadó con delfines en un club local de natación, en el restaurado baño romano en Bath, Somerset, contrajo meningitis y murió, lo cual llevó al cierre del lugar durante varios años. Las pruebas mostraron que la ameba N.fowleri estaba presente en el agua Medien in der Kategorie Meningitis Folgende 35 Dateien sind in dieser Kategorie, von 35 insgesamt. A treatise on the diseases of the nervous system (1881) (14591029350).jpg 3.280 × 1.924; 1,48 M

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What is meningitis? Meningitis describes inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Find more videos at. African meningitis belt; Meningitis Vaccine Project; الاستخدام في es.wikipedia.org Cinturón de la meningitis; الاستخدام في hy.wikipedia.org Մենինգոկոկային վարակ; الاستخدام في id.wikipedia.org Sabuk meningitis Afrika; الاستخدام في it.wikipedia.org Meningite meningococcica; Neisseria. La meningitis neonatal es una afección médica grave que afecta a lactantes. La meningitis es más común en el periodo neonatal (niños menores de 44 días) que en otra etapa de la vida, y a nivel global es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad. [1] [2] La mortalidad por meningitis neonatal en países en vías de desarrollo es del 40-58%, frente a un 8%-12,5% en los países. fa.wikipedia.or

Tuberculous meningitis — Wikipedia article - the free encyclopedia. Signs and symptoms. Fever and headache are the cardinal features; confusion is a late feature and coma bears a poor prognosis. Meningism is absent in a fifth of patients with TB meningitis. Patients may also have focal neurological deficits Klopni meningoencefalitis (okrajšano KME) je vnetje možganov in možganskih ovojnic, ki ga povzroča virus klopnega meningoencefalitisa in ga prenaša klop vrste Ixodes ricinus. V Sloveniji je klopni meningoencefalitis endemičen.Okužba pri večini okuženih bolnikov poteka brez simptomov (subklinično), lahko pa se pojavi blaga neznačilna vročinska bolezen, pri določenem deležu.

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Haemophilus meningitis — Wikipedia article - the free encyclopedia. Haemophilus meningitis is a form of bacterial meningitis caused by the Haemophilus influenzae bacteria. It is usually (but not always) associated with Haemophilus influenzae type b. Meningitis involves the inflammation of the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord English: Original caption: Boy of eleven, ill forty-eight hours with epidemic meningitis.He was detively delirious so that he had to be held for the photograph. Note the posture. The head was markedly retracted, back bowed Inflammation of brain and spinal cord membranes, typically caused by an infection. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral infection but can also be bacterial or fungal. Vaccines can prevent some forms of meningitis. Symptoms include headache, fever, and stiff neck. Depending on the cause, meningitis may get better on its own, or it can be life-threatening, requiring urgent antibiotic.

Meningitis. An meningitis, nga agsob implamasyon tawagon nga sakit ha birus, usa nga nakakatapon nga utok nga kordon espinal, nga nagkakalat ha usa ka sintoma pakadto ha usa hiranat nga sakit nga ulo. Usa ka turók ini nga barasahon. Dako it imo maibubulig ha Wikipedia pinaagi han pagparabong hini Meningitis is an inflammation (swelling) of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. A bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord usually causes the swelling. However, injuries, cancer, certain drugs, and other types of infections also can cause meningitis Meningitis je upala zaštitnih membrana mozga i kičmene moždine, koje se stručno nazivaju meninge (moždane ovojnice).Upalu mogu da izazovu virusi, bakterije, kao i drugi mikroorganizmi, ali može da bude i posljedica uzimanja lijekova ili drugih oboljenja.Meningitis može da bude fatalan i zato se smatra urgentnim stanjem u medicini Definition of bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, in particular the arachnoid and the pia mater, associated with the invasion of bacteria into the subarachnoid space, principles known for more than 100 years [Flexner, 1907].The pathogens take advantage of the specific features of the immune system in the CNS, replicate and induce inflammation.

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April 1, 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2016. ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 van de Beek D, de Gans J, Tunkel AR, Wijdicks EF (January 2006). Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults. The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (1): 44-53. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra052116. PMID 16394301 Meningitis is an infection of the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It can affect anyone, but is most common in babies, young children, teenagers and young adults. Meningitis can be very serious if not treated quickly. It can cause life-threatening blood. Wiki! is based on MediaWiki, the same platform Wikipedia is built on.You can create your own wiki and share it with the world :-)See www.wiki.t In cases of viral meningitis it is not always possible to identify the type of virus responsible for the disease (approximately 30-40% of patients have no pathogen identified). Although HIV is a rare cause of viral meningitis, it is important that adults with viral meningitis due to unknown cause undergo an HIV test 腦膜炎雙球菌(學名Neisseria meningitidis),又名腦膜炎奈瑟菌或腦脊髓膜炎雙球菌,簡稱為腦膜炎球菌,是一種革蘭氏陰性菌,因其所導致的腦膜炎、流行性脑膜炎而聞名,亦會造成腦膜炎球菌血症(一種致命性的敗血症)。牠只感染人類,並無寄生的動物,是唯一令細菌性感染腦膜炎成為流行病的病菌

Meningitis. 4. ANATOMY 5. Introduction. • Although meningitis is a notifiable disease, the exact incidence rate is unknown. • In 2010 - 420, 000 deaths • In 2013 - 303,000 deaths. • It can occur as a complication of other disease and 50% is an opportunistic infection. 6. Incidence. • Of newborns, 20-30% may die from bacterial. Meningitis Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) सन्दर्भ [ संपादित करें ] ↑ अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त Sáez-Llorens X, McCracken GH (2003)

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腦膜炎(英語: meningitis )指發生於腦膜的急性 發炎,腦膜是包裹大腦和脊髓的保護薄膜 。 腦膜炎最常見的症狀是發燒、頭痛和頸部僵硬 。 其他症狀還包含 精神錯亂 ( 英語 : mental confusion ) 或意識改變、嘔吐、 畏光 ( 英語 : Photophobia ) 或 無法忍受大聲的聲響 ( 英語 : phonophobia ) Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes around the spinal cord or brain. Bacterial meningitis is caused by bacterial and viral meningitis is caused by a virus. Meningitis symptoms in children include vomiting, rash, stiff neck, fever, seizure, nausea, increased sensitivity to light, and altered mental status. Treatment may include a breathing tube, a heart and breathing monitor, IV. Meningococcal meningitis, a bacterial form of meningitis, is a serious infection of the meninges that affects the brain membrane. It can cause severe brain damage and is fatal in 50% of cases if untreated. Twelve types of N. meningitides, called serogroups, have been identified, six of which (A, B, C, W, X and Y) can cause disease and epidemics Geen data <10 10-25 25-50 50-75 75-100 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-500 500-750 750-1000 >1000 Gebiede waar breinvliesontsteking baie voorkom: Meningitis-gordel Epidemiese sones slegs sporadiese gevalle Sterftes weens breinvliesontsteking per miljoen persone in 2012: 0-2 3-3 4-6 7-9 10-20 21-31 32-61 62-153 154-308 309-734 Voorheen het die meeste gevalle. English: Autopsy: Brain surrounded by pus (the yellow-greyish coat around the brain, under the dura lifted by the forceps), the result of bacterial meningitis. A brain autopsy demonstrating signs of pneumococcal meningitis in an alcoholic patient. The forceps (center) are retracting the dura mater (white)